Alkaloids and Fibrates

Alkaloids & Fibrates

Alkaloids: Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring organic compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. Studies of alkaloids began in the 19th century. Compared with most other classes of natural compounds, alkaloids are characterized by a great structural diversity.

Fibrates: In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids. They are used for a range of metabolic disorders, mainly hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and are therefore hypolipidemic agents. Fibrates are used in accessory therapy in many forms of hypercholesterolemia, usually in combination with statins. These stimulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, which controls the expression of gene products that mediate the metabolism of TG and HDL.

The Role of PPARs in Cancer– Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPAR𝛼 is mainly expressed in the liver, where it activates fatty acid catabolism. PPAR𝛼 activators have been used to treat dyslipidemia, causing a reduction in plasma triglyceride and elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PPAR𝛿 is expressed ubiquitously and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation and keratinocyte differentiation. PPAR𝛿 activators have been proposed for the treatment of metabolic disease. PPAR𝛾2 is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue and plays a pivotal role in adipocyte differentiation. PPAR𝛾 is involved in glucose metabolism through the improvement of insulin sensitivity and represents a potential therapeutic target of type 2 diabetes. Thus PPARs are molecular targets for the development of drugs treating metabolic syndrome. However, PPARs also play a role in the regulation of cancer cell growth. Here, we review the function of PPARs in tumor growth.

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