- Sun exposure is the main risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
- Melanoma is a type of cancer that usually occurs on skin that has been overexposed to the sun. The biggest environmental risk factor for developing melanoma is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. However, melanomas also occur on parts of the body that have never been exposed to the sun. Two rare and deadly forms of melanoma are not caused by sun exposure.
- Skin cancer can take 20 years or more to develop.
As a physiology and disease pathology student, these three statements listed above would indicate, at least to me, in my mind, that melanoma is not caused by UV radiation but that its source is something else. That it has been growing just below the surface for many years and that the UV light exposure is a confounding factor that disturbed a slowly growing pathology that would otherwise continue to grow until another environmental factor acted upon it, resulting in its recognition as a cancerous growth.
My own suspicion is that all skin cancers, but also all soft tissue tumors(cancer) are a result of undigested complete mammalian and possibly even non-mammalian animal proteins from meat making their way into our soft tissues through a compromised intestinal(small) epithelium. What most refer to as leaky gut.
“Leaky gut” is a term that refers to increased intestinal permeability, a condition in which the lining of the small intestine becomes damaged, causing undigested food particles, toxic waste products, and bacteria to “leak” through the intestines and flood the bloodstream. This can lead to various health problems, including autoimmune reactions, inflammation, and food sensitivities.
If undigested particles of any food, not just meat, were to enter the bloodstream, a few potential events could occur:
Immune Response: The immune system would recognize these undigested particles as foreign and mount an inflammatory response against them. This can lead to symptoms of inflammation like swelling, redness, pain, and potentially fever.
Creation of Antibodies: Over time, if the same undigested particles keep entering the bloodstream, the body may start to produce antibodies against them. This is the foundation of food sensitivities or allergies. When the individual consumes that food again, even if it doesn’t enter the bloodstream, the body can react to it, thinking it’s a harmful invader.
Systemic Inflammation: Chronic exposure to foreign particles in the bloodstream can contribute to systemic inflammation, which is linked to various chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions.
Potential Aggravation of Autoimmune Conditions: The entry of undigested food particles into the bloodstream might also trigger or aggravate autoimmune conditions, where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues.
Other Effects: While the above are the most discussed effects of a “leaky gut,” there could be other cascading impacts on metabolism, hormone balance, and even mental health due to the interconnectedness of our body’s systems.
What kinds of things interfere with intestinal lumen endothelial function?
What kinds of foods result in a leaky gut?
Pig lifespan 15-20 years.
Pig tissue heart valve lifespan is also 15-20 years. Neither of which does the human body reject, but actually continues to regenerate using human stem cells.
Is it possible that porcine telomeres are the limiting factors in the longevity of tissue heart valves?
Porcine(pig) heart valves are commonly used in heart valve replacement surgeries because they are biologically similar to human heart valves. When prepping these valves for implantation, the cells and other antigens that might provoke an immune response are removed. This process makes the valves less likely to be rejected by the patient’s immune system. Here’s a more detailed breakdown:
1. Decellularization: Before implantation, porcine heart valves undergo a process called decellularization. This process removes cells and cellular antigens from the valve, leaving behind mostly the structural matrix. Without the cellular components, there’s a reduced risk of an immune response.
2. Cross-linking with Glutaraldehyde: After decellularization, the valves are often treated with a chemical called glutaraldehyde. This treatment further reduces antigenicity (the potential to provoke an immune response) and provides additional stability and durability to the valve.
3. Biocompatibility: The extracellular matrix that remains after these treatments is largely made up of collagen and other proteins that are very similar between pigs and humans. This similarity makes the valve more biocompatible and less likely to be seen as “foreign” by the human immune system.
4. Host Remodeling: Over time, the patient’s own cells can migrate into the implanted valve and remodel it, making it even more integrated with the patient’s body.
5. Immune Privilege of the Heart: There’s some evidence to suggest that the heart, like the eyes and the brain, might have a degree of “immune privilege.” This means that the immune system might be less aggressive in these areas, reducing the chances of rejection.
While porcine valves are less prone to immune rejection than unprocessed tissue would be, they’re not perfect. Bioprosthetic valves, including porcine valves, can deteriorate over time, requiring a replacement after a decade or two. Mechanical valves, on the other hand, can last much longer but come with other complications, such as the need for lifelong anticoagulant therapy. The choice of valve type depends on a variety of factors, including patient age, lifestyle, and overall health.
What happens to a porcine heart valve once it reaches the end of its useful health span/lifespan of 15 to 20 years?
Once a bioprosthetic heart valve, like a porcine valve, reaches the end of its useful life, it generally undergoes structural deterioration. This can be due to a combination of factors like the physical stress of a pulsatile environment, enzymatic reactions in the human body, and possible immune reactions over time.
Here are the changes and deteriorations you might observe in a porcine heart valve at the end of its useful lifetime:
1. Calcification: Over time, calcium deposits can form on the valve leaflets. Calcification can make the leaflets stiff, limiting their ability to open and close properly. This is one of the most common reasons for bioprosthetic valve failure.
2. Leaflet Tear or Rupture: The constant movement of the valve can lead to wear and tear. In some cases, the leaflets might even tear or rupture, leading to significant valve dysfunction.
3. Thickening and Fibrosis: The leaflets can become thickened or fibrotic, which can also limit their mobility and, therefore, the valve’s function.
4. Endocarditis: While not a direct result of the valve’s aging, bioprosthetic valves can sometimes become infected, a condition known as endocarditis. This can damage the valve and require its replacement.
5. Host Remodeling: As the patient’s cells infiltrate and remodel the valve over time, there can sometimes be overgrowth or other changes that impact valve function.
Once the valve shows significant deterioration and is no longer functioning properly, it poses serious health risks. Symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the ankles, feet, or abdomen, chest pain, or fainting can emerge or intensify.
When the valve’s function is compromised to a dangerous level, patients will need another heart valve replacement or repair surgery. Depending on the patient’s age, health status, and preferences, a subsequent bioprosthetic or mechanical valve might be chosen for the replacement.